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Essays on responsibility to protect - Defining Down Sovereignty The Rights and of Nations- Ethics International Affairs Ethics International Affairs

In so doing, it is proposed that the Responsibility to Protect as a concept is necessarily overly utopian, and as such, was always doomed to its ultimate fate subversion. When a norm is deeply embedded and internalised it can serve as a prevailing standard of in which its enabling and constraining effects will be high. Moreover, it is not enough for the intervener to promote beneficial consequences for those it is trying to save what he calls local external effectiveness it must also consider the costs and benefits for its own constituents internal effectiveness and promote the enjoyment of human rights in the world at large global external effectiveness Pattison, pp.


In addition, there is enough State practice and opinio juris as expressed by States in various fora, e. R2P AND ITS POSSIBLE IMPACT ON THE LAW OF INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY The ICJ Judgment in the Genocide Convention Case Is R2P Drawing New Horizons for the Law on State Just four days later, on 26 February, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1970, which determined that the widespread and systematic attacks against the civilian population may amount to crimes against humanity recalled the Libyan authorities responsibility to protect its population imposed a variety of sanctions such as an arms embargo, travel ban and assets freeze and referred the situation in Libya to the International Criminal Court. Right intention Whatever other motives individual states have, the primary purpose of the intervention must be to halt or prevent human suffering. Therefore, the coercive element of R2P, pillar three, does not necessarily apply to Syria because of the potential consequences. This has been formulated in the 2005 World Summit and essentially means that when States, which are primary responsible to protect their population fail to do so, the international community should intervene. All submissions become the property of the Canadian Centre for R2P and will not be returned. The launch of this collection of essays occurs shortly after the adoption of Security Council Resolution 1970 2011 on February 26, 2011 on the situation in Libya, which recalls the responsibility of the government to protect its population and thus echoes paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document on RtoP. Second is the damage that failures in the application of R2P have done to the concept, focusing on lack of action in Darfur and Syria, and R2P s use in Libya. Diplomatic efforts helped prevent the violence from escalating, described by Annan as a successful example of R2P at work, the lack of military intervention. In fact, when the UN s Special Advisers on the Prevention of Genocide and on the Responsibility to Protect issued a joint statement during the crisis calling for an impartial international investigation into the events, their communiqu e was corrected within an hour to drop this demand, presumably a result of both diplomatic opposition to such action and a lack of coordination within the UN system.

Russia and China have time and again exercised their veto powers to halt any international intervention on humanitarian grounds. The concept of R2P is indeed often described as an emerging norm which in principle is agreed upon by all UN Member States. But even if the R2P norm and its language is abused by some, like the United States invocation of humanitarian reasons for invading Iraq in 2003, this should not diminish the concept itself. GOOD POINTS The answer examines very satisfactorily the basic question. Conclusion This chapter has discussed Brazil s RwP concept which is an important contribution to the R2P debate. In fact, bringing the state back in in the policy discussions of state failure and state-building is an extension of the agenda of the domestic policymaking sphere of non-Western states. However, the commission also notes that while the UNSC should always be the first source of authorisation to consult, it should not be the last if the Council fails to act, for instance in the case of deadlock due to a single veto and there is imminent and pressing needs for action to be taken to halt or stop a large scale loss of lives.

Given this accountability there is no harm, and indeed much benefit, in giving individuals wide latitude to use resources as they choose. Walter, Committing to peace the successful settlement of civil wars.

89 Furthermore, claims of the use of indiscriminate force by Gaddafi s forces are questionable given that, among the victims, women ranged between around 1-3, indicating that forces strove to target combatants. Consequently, it might well be both the first and the last UN-backed armed humanitarian intervention.


who help to guarantee fair voting procedures can help to ensure stable and peaceful elections.

Moderator s Conclusion Wrapping-up What About a Splash in Legitimacy and Integrity? NATO and its members relied on a mixture of the legal arguments explained above and moral arguments relating to the human rights abuses in Kosovo to justify their intervention. 1,000 words Edited by A Syrian refugee camp near Erbil.


Furthermore a well understood focus on non-military methods should avoid the complicated and controversial questions about the legality of the use of force, which will be analysed in detail below.

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Third World Approaches to International Law and Individual Responsibility in Internal Conflict, in Ratner and Slaughter The Methods of International Law Buffalo ASIL, 2004 Ayoob, M. There were suggestions in the ICISS Report and High-Level Panel Report that the permanent five should refrain from using the veto in face of a large scale atrocity, but this was not taken up at the world summit. Pillar three is the responsibility of Member States to respond collectively in a timely and decisive manner when state is manifestly failing to provide such protection. Liberty is both a highly valued outcome of a beneficent political economy, and an essential ingredient into it.

Los Angeles Times, August 25, 2011, available from accessed 02 05 14 CIA, The World Fact Book, Syria, available from accessed 26 04 14 Dawson, Grant, David Cameron s intervention in Libya was bloody and illegitimate, May 15, 2012, available from accessed 24 04 14 Doyle, Michael W.


Yet in Libya force almost immediately followed the ultimatums issued to Qaddafi for all intents and purposes, R2P was NATO-ized.


The leading interveners in Libya responded to the criticisms by rejecting demands for accountability with regards to how Resolution 1973 had been implemented and brushed aside criticisms in the Security Council. led calls early in the crisis for recognition of the rebel movement in Libya and the implementation of a no-fly zone, provided it received regional and legal support.

Benner suggests that one reason why the West was initially so uneasy about RwP was because they did not accept that a non-Western state took on the role as a norm entrepreneur, which has for a long time been the domain of the West, especially so in the fundamental questions of sovereignty and intervention.

In this role, he confronted firsthand the individuals who were placed in the moral vacuum left by the state s failure, deliberate or imposed, to fulfil its normal Indeed, there are major reservations about the direction of the concept- in particular its politicization and in the wake of NATO-led intervention in Libya.

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