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Writing numbers as words in essays - Scientific writing Avoid starting sentences with a number or abbreviation Editage Insights

and in fact what is the proper way to write numbers in general? For some reason, in this case it doesn t seem natural, to me, writing delay. If the number is large and you want to avoid writing it all out, rearrange the sentence so that the number no longer comes first.


However, use a figure for the first number if it cannot be written in one or two words.

Are the two examples for miles in dialogue as well? Chicago prefers the use of numerals for all numbers used as part of percentages, but use the word percent for humanistic copy and the symbol for scientific and statistical copy humanistic 10 percent but spell out 10 if it begins the sentence scientific, statistical 10 Q. Some writers prefer using and, but Chicago s preference is to omit it.


203 If you re juggling a bunch of numbers within the same sentence, stick to the rules as stated and you ll be fine. The advice proffered here is meant primarily for standard academic prose. This was a larger percentage than we hypothesized. But don t get us started on SE7EN The phone company has a two-year contract, but a bank may call it a 3-year fixed term loan it can often come down to style and consistency again. The period can be omitted from such abbreviated measurements unless confusion would result after in.


For example, in fiction you might not often have cause to write The AH-64D Apache Longbow was the team s first choice. I write military mystery novels and ofter need to write the time using the 24 hour clock.


1 of 10 or 1 out of 10 Reed Proctor on December 30, 2014 2 53 pm Juanna You don t use AM PM for military time.

If my teacher has 23 beginning students, she also has 18 advanced students, not eighteen advanced students. Some sources I checked mentioned using the suspended hyphen with and, or, and to in cases just like this, but I would probably hyphenate the full phrase with to. Twentyish, eighteenish, seventyish all look correct too. a 1 2-per-day fee a 35 industry a 6 12-a-year tax hike a 20,000 salary a 20 30-mile hike 5 10-gallon containers a group of 5 10-year-olds 20 30 35 45 and 50 60-year-old men a group of 20 30 35 45 and 50 60-year-olds within a 20 30-mile radius a 10 15-foot sprint a 5 10-inch-wide laceration a 20 30-mile-long stretch of highway a 15 20-foot-deep pool a 20 30-pound weight loss Chicago 16 9. Those roles have given us ample opportunities to observe the difficulties that many authors experience in conforming to APA Style guidelines. Use words when doing so isn t convoluted or cumbersome or unclear. Have you noticed that sometimes this zero is used in decimal values and sometimes it is not? There are certain numbers that we spell out in letters, while there are others that we only write in numerals 1, 2, 3, etc. Download this icon to link to The Chicago Manual of Style Online from your site.

Structure The way an article is formatted, has a massive impact upon its readability.

when the number begins a sentence, title, or heading examples Forty-eight percent of the sample. If I may, could I please ask a few more questions that were not covered under certain sections of your page? There are exceptions, of course, for expressions with more than a few numbers in them and for years and for products and highways and such. Large Whole Round Numbers If there are only a few words, we often spell out. Are there any other differences I should know about?

CORRECT One hundred and thirty student volunteers joined the university peace mission. It just seems as though the hyphens in all examoles makes it easier for the reader to instantly parse these phrases after the be verbs.

They are due back from their holiday on Monday 23 June.


OR Seven thousand tickets were sold in the first hour.

Numbers in your dissertation Should you use words or numerals? If your paper includes numbers, learn the standard rules for writing numbers in papers. Style and context matter when you re using numbers in a sentence. And even a single style manual will point out that the guidelines change according to the type of number and the context in which it is being used., Biblical Theology Bulletin, The Harvard Theological Review that would make a literalist question the universality of the usage.

Do you have any for how to report such numbers in a meaningful way? The unit of measure in such expressions is, for some reason, always singular.


You could argue for zero through nine, as is recommended for AP style, but do note that the in the Associated Press Stylebook are primarily for newspaper and magazine writing. Our Creative Commons license allows you to do so for free.


OR Seven thousand tickets were sold in the first hour. In the rare instance in which you are genuinely unsure of whether the construction should be changed, it s probably fine either way. Money-back guarantee and ninety-day trial are units on their own, akin to wedding dress. The advice proffered here is meant primarily for standard academic prose.


Example Five million, three hundred and five thousand, two hundred and twelve 5 305 212. Approximate figures fractional or otherwise may be written out as words one half the students, a quarter cup of sugar, a third of the time, four times as often. 485, 55, 14 1 4 Scores The Bulls won the final game by a score of 114 to 106. Susan, my first recommendation would be to spell out the time in dialogue whether it s military time or standard time. One-ish, two-ish, three-ish, four-ish, five-ish, six-ish, seven-ish, eight-ish, nine-ish, ten-ish, eleven-ish, twelve-ish. The rules pertain to cardinal numbers, unless otherwise stated. The numbers, evenly separated, had been carved into the long side of the box with a sharp blade, leaving straight lines and smooth angles. For more information about writing numbers in APA Style, take a look at our and our FAQ page about.


This is extremely useful especially since parts and assemblies for cars and trucks are often make in one country but then assembled into complete vehicles in the other. Falling into this category are a numbers expressed in numerals APA, 2010, section 4. Make it Fourscore and seven years ago, not 4 score and 7 years ago. Sharing options shares When Should I Spell Out Numbers? Straight quote used here to denote possession outside of the ending double quote marks. Whether to use a numeral or to spell out a number as a word is. But if and or or are used in similar ranges, then use suspended hyphenation. Per their style, would you consider all of the following to be correct? However, a reader asked that we cover another difference between the two styles how they present numbers, particularly ranges of numbers. We calculated Cronbach s alpha as the reliability statistic and then ran a chi-square test.


Longer essays usually score better on every essay topic. Which APA Style Rules Are the Most Challenging to Learn?

Shawn talks about her experience receiving authorship invitations from predatory journals and.

Unfortunately, there is no APA-approved list of terms to which this rule applies. B As with 4, CMOS might say no hyphens, though I personally might go with hyphens here.

Use the words to, through, or until with from, and and with between. But it s probably best to stick to the more general phrase turn of the century and to limit it to a context that makes the century in question clear for example, in a discussion surrounding the immediate legacy of Theodore Roosevelt s charge up San Juan Hill.


Should I use numerals for chapter and verses or write them out? There are over thirty million people living in Mexico City.


Since they re not in dialogue, you could leave them as numerals.

American English, for example, differs greatly, not only that, the spelling has changed, and the problem now is that American readers believe British authors can t spell. Sue Ann, keep to the general rule, which is to spell out numbers less than 101. And here s to Amethyst may it exceed your expectations.

I think someone told me to spell them all out, what a pain. a recommendation from some sources, although not one I d make Money Do not hyphenate dollar amounts except for the numbers between twenty-one and ninety-nine that require them.

Dave said, It happened in nineteen eighty-five and in nineteen ninety. Lastly, can I omit the comma after 2005 and Oklahoma below? The unit of measure in such expressions is, for some reason, always singular.


Decimals and percentages should be expressed in figures, and the word percent should be written out, except in scientific writing With interest currently running at 8 percent, the total monthly repayment figure would be almost 2.


Also can you say I was born the 24 of February, 1930? Once again, the British decided to change the language for some trendy slang, and then tried to pretend it was the august original.


busses is the better construction, and you are happily on your way to whatever future awaits in the City That Never Sleeps.

Dates, phone numbers, and time Use numbers for dates My birthday is March 16.

Fewer writers speak of the teens, an expression that Chicago doesn t favor. The manual is silent about approximations of weeks, decades, or centuries.


The Associated Press Stylebook prefers the ambiguous word figure to refer to number symbols e. Two-thirds For complicated fractions, it might be preferable to use numerals or to convert to decimals. Example 2 There are 178 children enrolled for the summer cheerleading camp. At first blush, this can be a tough rule, as it is to a certain degree contingent on a subjective aesthetic interpretation of readability. Posted by Anne Woodworth Gasque at 11 10 AM in November 17, 2011 by Timothy McAdoo As Chelsea so succinctly noted in her recent post about, in the social sciences, the worlds of grammar and mathematics intersect.


Examples of Rule 4 We ordered the Model 4 printer for our office. Why not make your writing mistake-free across the web? The actress earned eight million dollars for her sixth film. I was taught the former in grade school a colleague was taught the latter, equally adamantly.


We ll try to address your concerns in future blogs.

In both narrative and dialogue, if you use the name of the gun or ammo, spell it as the manufacturer does, including numerals and capital letters. When writing out numbers above 999, do not use commas.

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