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How to write literature reviews - The Literature Review A Few Tips On Conducting It Writing Advice

FURTHER RESEARCH Write a paragraph or two on the research that needs to be done, and why.

By Publication Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend.

It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study such as a thesis or dissertation. Last updated November 21, 2014 Note For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from Galvan, J.

It provides an, appropriate methods and methodologies, what questions are being asked, the key findings, and who the key writers are.

Internet Society for Sportscience Hopkins WG 1998c.

Are you unsure when, under what kind of circumstances, and how frequently it would be appropriate to write to the editor?


1988 Case study research in education a qualitative approach.


Plagiarism is the using of someone else s words or ideas, and passing them off as your own. Types of Literature Reviews Argumentative Review This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature.

To ensure that you have quoted accurately and to save time in note taking, if you are accessing the article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit copy paste functions. Internet Society for Sportscience Hopkins WG 1999. Step Four Code the literature Get out a pair of scissors and cut each excerpt out. Typically, for the former, using the simple past tense is common, e. Be specific about any database search you performed. Doing Your Literature Review Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible.


Be wary of generalizing results from novice athletes to elites. Staff and students in your area can be good sources of ideas about where to look for relevant literature. Body paragraphs Each body paragraph should deal with a different theme that is relevant to your topic. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Checklist for a literature review Have I outlined the purpose and scope?

Adapted from Literature Review Guide, Gail Craswell, ANU. Do not give a summary paper-by-paper instead, deal with themes and draw together results from several papers for each theme. Have I explained to the reader the relevance of each piece of evidence?


An effect is statistically significant if the likely range of the true value of the effect is unlikely to include the zero or null effect.

PMCID PMC3715443 Ten Simple Rules for Writing a Literature Review 1Centre for Functional and Evolutionary Ecology CEFE, CNRS, Montpellier, France 2Centre for Biodiversity Synthesis and Analysis CESAB, FRB, France University of California San Diego, United States of America The author has declared that no competing interests exist.

Step Five Create Your Conceptual Schema Type, in large font, the name of each of your coded themes. primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, recent scientific findings?, writing for courses, writing for publication, or writing thesis and dissertations, it does provide the needed structure act as a sort of graduate student writing Here are several strategies you can utilize to assess whether you ve adequately reviewed the literature Look for repeating patterns in the research findings. These references are in Sportscience style Cohen J 1988. books aimed at the general public may not be specific enough Who is the author?


In other words, content has not necessarily been checked, you have no way of knowing whether the author s facts and claims are at all accurate and you could easily land yourself in trouble by blindly following or citing from online sources. Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration. Literature can include a range of sources journal articles monographs computerized databases conferences proceedings dissertations empirical studies government reports and reports from other bodies historical records statistical handbooks.

Instead, organize the literature review into sections that present themes or identify trends, including relevant theory. Be as economical with words as possible, but do not compromise grammar.

Theoretical Review The purpose of this form is to examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena.

As the writer composes the literature review, he or she must construct an argument of sorts to establish the necessity of his or her research. You need to be ready to cross out whole paragraphs or even whole sections if they do not pass the above tests.


Import your references into your RefWorks account see for guide on how to do this from different databases. Confidence limits are appearing more frequently in publications, but most authors still use statistical significance. Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature. If you were to read only these sentences, would you?

Hart C 1998 Doing a literature review releasing the social science research imagination.

This helps you to justify why you have chosen this area for your own research. The funders had no role in the preparation of the manuscript.

A guide to writing the dissertation literature review. Content of the Literature Review The, and your ideas must flow logically from one point to the next. Ways of finding relevant material Electronic sources Searching electronic databases is probably the quickest way to access a lot of material. If you find that what you ve written is not in the best order, then re-shaping it is not a huge problem.

CONCLUSIONS Use bullets to list the points you want to make here. Link your keywords on your topic to the keyword thesis and the name of the department school discipline subject.

This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document.

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